Actually, there is no denominational church today that is structured like the Early Church.  The Early Watchtower actually was structured like the Early Church, but Rutherford changed that after Russell’s death.  Bible Students today still structure their congregations in this Biblical manner.

According to the Bible, the election of elders by Holy Spirit anointed congregational members was practiced in the Early Church.  The eventual elimination of this practice gradually led to Elders becoming the Lord’s of the Church, rather than its servants and it opened the way for the development of the Papal system which suppressed Christian liberty.

Paul and Barnabas went around to all the churches and conducted the election of Elders.  Acts 14: 23 (Weymouth) says, ”And in every Church, after prayer and fasting, they selected Elders by show of hands, and commended them to the Lord on whom their faith rested.  Other translations, like Rotherham and Young’s Literal translation say, “appointed to them by vote elders in every assembly.”    RVIC Revised Version Improved and Corrected says, “elected elders.”

Most translators confuse the reader by mis-translating the Greek word (Strong’s 5500) as”ordain.”  Yet the real meaning of the word cannot be hidden in 2 Corinthians  where Paul speaks of a brother who was elected by the churches to travel with him:  2 Cor 8:19 (Weymouth ) “… he is the one who was chosen by the vote of the Churches to travel with us…

In another example, we recall that the Apostles asked the Jerusalem Church to select seven deacons.  Acts 6:3 Weymouth says, “Therefore, brethren, pick out from among yourselves seven men of good repute, full of the Spirit and of wisdom, and we will appoint them to undertake this duty.”  Certainly, no one would have challenged the Apostles had they exerted their influence to appoint deacons themselves.  Yet instead they humbly asked the Congregation to make this selection.

The Apostles never attempted to assert authoritative rule over the Congregations, even though Freedom and Christian Liberty in the Churches was so strong that it created great problems for the Apostles.

In 3 John 1 (Phillips), the Apostle John said, “9 I did write a letter to the church, but Diotrephes, who wants to be head of everything, does not recognise us!  10  If I do come to you, I shall not forget his actions nor the slanderous things he has said in spite against us. And it doesn’t stop there, for he refuses to welcome the brothers himself, and stops those who would like to do so—he even excommunicates them!

Is the JW Governing Body more like the Apostle John or Diotrephes?

Paul’s humility is very evident in his plea to the Corinthian brethren in 2 Cor10:1 (NKJV) where he says, ”Now I, Paul, myself am pleading with you by the meekness and gentleness of Christ — who in presence am lowly among you…“

Paul did not try to force his will upon the Church.  He did not lord it over the Church, but in their presence was humble and lowly.

In 1 Thess 2 (NASV), Paul says, ”6 nor did we seek glory from men, either from you or from others, even though as apostles of Christ we might have asserted our authority. 7 But we proved to be gentle among you, as a nursing mother tenderly cares for her own children. 8 Having so fond an affection for you, we were well-pleased to impart to you not only the gospel of God but also our own lives, because you had become very dear to us.

Speaking of himself and the other Apostles, Paul says in 1 Cor 4 (NKJV) ”11 To the present hour we both hunger and thirst, and we are poorly clothed, and beaten, and homeless. 12 And we labor, working with our own hands. Being reviled, we bless; being persecuted, we endure; 13 being defamed, we entreat. We have been made as the filth of the world….”  Does the JW Governing Body live like Kings or like the Apostles?

Considering the humble condition and circumstance faced daily by the Apostles, we should feel privileged with even the lowliest of services for the Lord, the Truth and the brethren.

Paul lamented, 2 Tim 1:15 (NIV), ”You know that everyone in the province of Asia has deserted me, including Phygelus and Hermogenes…”

2 Tim 4:16 (NAS), ”At my first defense no one supported me, but all deserted me...”

The Apostles suffered much in order to lead the Early Church by example, gentleness and love, even though they could have made things easy for themselves by implementing an iron rule.

The early church was able to resist the encroachments of power hungry leaders.  Rev 2:6 says of the first (Early) Church, “But this you have, that you hate the deeds of the Nicolaitans, which I also hate.”    The word Nicolans means “A conqueror or lord of the people.”  These are those who lord it over the Lord’s heritage. (1 Pet. 5:3)

Yet by the third Church period (Approx 311 to 700 AD), this oppressive influence began to take over the Church.  Rev 2:14, 15 (NKJV) “ But I have a few things against you, because you have there those who hold the doctrine of Balaam…  you also have those who hold the doctrine of the Nicolaitans, which thing I hate.”  Yes, “while men [the apostles] slept [in death], the enemy [Satan] sowed tares [imitation Christians] amount the wheat [true Christians].” (Matt 13:25)

You can read more about how the Early Watchtower was structured like the early church from C.T. Russell’s own words here: 

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WHAT DO COMMENTARIES SAY?

Since Ordaining ministers is common practice in denominational churches, it would be amazing to find any of their authorities conceding that Strongs 5500 can be translated to “vote” or ”elect,” yet the historical definition of the word in early literature is so clear that it cannot be ignored.  The following commentators concede the meaning, yet some try to maneuver out of the concession by rationalizing that the meaning of the word was changed by the apostles.

BARNES NOTES
er. 23. And when they had ordained. ceirotonhsantev. The word ordain we now use in an ecclesiastical sense, to denote a setting apart to an office by the imposition of hands.  But it is evident that the word here is not employed in that sense.  That imposition of hands might have occurred in setting apart afterwards to this office is certainly possible, but it is not implied in the word employed here, and did not take place in the transaction to which this word refers. The word occurs but in one other place in the New Testament, {#2Co 8:19} where it is applied to Luke, and translated, “who was also chosen of the church, (i.e. appointed or elected by suffrage by the churches,) to travel with us,” etc. The verb properly denotes to stretch out the hand; and as it was customary to elect to office, or to vote, by stretching out or elevating the hand, so the word simply means to elect, appoint, or designate to any office. The word here refers simply to an election or appointment of the elders.  It is said, indeed, that Paul and Barnabas did this. But probably all that is meant by it is, that they presided in the assembly when the choice was made.  It does not mean that they appointed them without consulting the church; but it evidently means that they appointed them in the usual way of appointing officers, by the suffrages of the people. See Schleusner, and the notes of Doddridge and Calvin.

JFP – JAMIESON, FAUSSET & BROWN
Acts 14:23, 24. when they had ordained them elders—literally, “chosen by showof hands.” But as that would imply that this was done by the apostles’ own hands, many render the word, as in our version, “ordained.” Still, as there is no evidence in the New Testament that the word had then lost its proper meaning, as this is beyond doubt its meaning in #2Co 8:19, and as there is indisputable evidence that the concurrence of the people was required in all elections to sacred office in the earliest ages of the Church, it is perhaps better to understand the words to mean, “when they had made a choice of elders,” that is, superintended such choice on the part of the disciples.

THE PULPIT COMMENTARY
Appointed for them for ordained them, A.V.
(ceirotonhsantev); had believed for believed, A.V. The original meaning of ceirotonew is “to stretch out the hand,” and the substantive ceirotonia is used in the LXX of #Isa 58:9 for “the putting forth of the finger” of the A.V.  But the common meaning of the verb is “to vote by stretching out the hand” and hence “to elect” by a show of hands, {#2Co 8:19} or simply “to appoint,” without any reference to voting.  In the choice of an apostle the election was by lot, {#Ac 1:26} in the appointment of deacons the choice was by the people, how indicated we are not told; {#Ac 6:5} the question here, on which commentators disagree, is whether the use of the word ceirotonew indicates voting by the people, selection by the apostles, or simple creation or appointment. As ceirotonhsantev is predicated of Paul and Barnabas, it cannot possibly refer to voting by the people, who are included in the able, as those on whose behalf the ceirotonia was made. It seems simplest and most in accordance with the classical use of the word and its use (innoiv), #Ac 10:41 (prokeceirotonhme) to take it in the sense of creation or appointment (see Steph., ‘Thesaur.’).  There is no reference to the laying on of hands.  Elders. see #Ac 11:30, note; #Ac 20:17; and especiallyterov #Tit 1:5,7, where we see that presbu was synonymous with ejpiskopov.  From presbuterov is formed prestos, priest, in French prestre, pretre. Comp. #Ac 13:3, for fasting and prayer as accompaniments of ordination.  Hence in the Church ordinations are preceded by the Ember days. They commended them to the Lord. {comp. #Ac 20:32}  In ver. 26 the word used is paradedomenoi.

CALVIN’S COMMENTARIES
Had ordained by election. The Greek word ceirotonein doth signify to decree, or ordain a thing, by lifting up the hands, as they used to do in the assemblies of the people. Notwithstanding, the ecclesiastical writers do often use the word ceirotoneia, in another sense; to wit, for their [the] solemn rite of ordaining, which is called in Scripture laying on of hands. Furthermore, by this manner of speech is very excellently expressed the right way to ordain pastors. Paul and Barnabas are said to choose {2} elders. Do they this alone by their private office? {3} Nay, rather they suffer the matter to be decided by the consent of them all. {4} Therefore, in ordaining pastors the people had their free election, but lest there should any tumult arise, Paul and Barnabas sit as chief moderators. Thus must the decree of the council of Laodicea be understood, which forbiddeth that the people have liberty granted them to elect. {5}

J. A. ALEXANDER COMMENTARY
And when they had ordained them elders in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord on whom they believed.  Besides these exhortations of instructions, they gave their converts a distinct organization as societies or churches. The meaning of the word ordained has been the subject of protracted and vehement dispute between Presbyterian and Episcopal interpreters. The latter grant that the original etymological import of the Greek word is to vote by stretching out the hand, but they contend that usage had so modified its meaning as to generate the secondary sense of choosing or appointing, without any reference to votes or popular election; and this they insist upon as the unquestionable use of the word here, where the act is predicated, not of the people but of Paul and Barnabas, who cannot be supposed to have voted for these elders with the outstretched hand.  Some go further and adopt the patristical usage of the word to denote imposition of hands, as the ordaining act; but this is commonly agreed to be an ecclesiastical usage of the word long posterior in date to the times of the Apostles. The opposite extreme is that of making the word here denote, directly and exclusively, the act of suffrage or election by the people.  To meet the objection, which has been already stated, that the act described is not that of the people, but of Paul and Barnabas, some modify this explanation of the term, so as to make it mean that Paul and Barnabas appointed or ordained the elders chosen by the people. The philological objection to this modification, that the same verb cannot denote both these processes at once, can only be removed by taking one step further and thus reaching the true mean between the opposite extremes. This middle ground is, that the verb itself, expressing as it clearly does the act of Paul and Barnabas, can only mean that they appointed or ordained these elders, without determining the mode of election or the form of ordination; but that the use of this particular expression, which originally signified the vote of an assembly, does suffice to justify us in supposing that the method of selection was the same as that recorded (not in #Ac 1:26, where the election was by lot and by direct divine authority, but) in #Ac 6:5,6, where it is explicitly recorded that the people chose the seven and the twelve ordained them.

JOHN GILL’S EXPOSITOR
Ver. 23. And when they had ordained them elders in every church, &c.] As soon as ever any number of disciples were made, or souls were converted to Christ in any place, they were at once formed, by the apostles, into a church state; and as the gifts, as well as the grace of the Holy Ghost, attended the ministry of the word, so among those that were converted, there were some that were honoured with ministerial gifts, qualifying them to preach the Gospel, and take upon them the care of the churches: these the apostles directed the churches to look out from among themselves, as in the case of deacons, an inferior office, who by joint suffrages declared their choice of them by the stretching out, or lifting up of their hands, as the word here used signifies, and not the imposition of them; and the apostles presiding in this affair, they were installed into the office of bishops, elders, or pastors over them; which expresses the great regard the apostles had to the order, as well as to the doctrine of the Gospel, and the concern they had for the welfare of souls converted under their ministry, by making a provision for them when they were gone.

CLARK’S COMMENTARY
Anciently, the choice or suffrage was called cheirotonia; for, when it was lawful for the multitude in their cities to choose their priests or bishops, they met together, and some chose one man, some another; but, that it might appear whose suffrage won, they say the electors did use ekteinein tav ceirav, to stretch forth their hands, and by their hands so stretched forth, or up, they were numbered who chose the one, and who the other; and him who was elected by the most suffrages they placed in the high priesthood. And from hence was the name cheirotonia taken, which the fathers of the councils are found to have used, calling their suffrage cheirotonia.’ St. Paul, {#2Co 8:19}, intimates that St. Luke was thus appointed to travel with him ceirotonhyeiv upo twn ekklhsiwn, who was chosen of the Churches.  Ignatius, in his epistle to the Philadelphians, uses the same term, prepon estin umin, wv ekklhsia yeou, ceirotonhsai episkopon, ye ought, as a Church of God, to choose your bishop.” Much more on this subject may be seen in Sir Norton Knatchbull, who contends that cheirotonia implies simply appointment or election, but not what he calls ordination by the imposition of hands. I believe the simple truth to be this, that in ancient times the people chose by the cheirotonia (lifting up of hands) their spiritual pastor; and the rulers of the Church, whether apostles or others, appointed that person to his office by the cheirothesia, or imposition of hands; and perhaps each of these was thought to be equally necessary: the Church agreeing in the election of the person; and the rulers of the Church appointing, by imposition of hands, the person thus elected. See note on “Ac 6:6″.

MATHIEW POOLE’S COMMENTARY
Acts 14:23. Ordained;  the word properly signifies a stretching out of the hand, such as was used when they gave their suffrages in the election of their magistrates, whereby was showed for whom they gave their voice; and afterwards it was commonly used for to constitute or appoint, or, as here, to ordain to any office or place; which might the rather be done by stretching out or laying on of the hands of the apostles, because by that means the Holy Ghost (or a power of working miracles) was frequently bestowed, #Ac 8:17,18, which in those times was necessary to authorize their doctrine to the infidel world.

PNT PEOPLE NEW TESTAMENT NOTES
And when they had ordained them elders. Observe (1) that elders were not appointed as soon as the churches were planted; time must be taken so as to know what men were fitted for the office; (2) that elders were not appointed to preside over a district, but “in every church”; (3) that there was a plurality; (4) that they were set apart with fasting, prayer, and imposition of hands. It is not here stated who selected the men, but from #Ac 6:6 we would infer that they were chosen by the church under the advice of the apostles.

COFFMAN’S COMMENTARY ON THE BIBLE
Appointed…
Arguments based on this word which would require elders to be voted upon are not valid. As MacGreggor noted: The word ‘appointed’ means literally ‘chose by show of hands’ and, strictly speaking, should imply some form of popular voting.  But it had come to be used of choice in general without reference to the means.

WEYMOUTH:   selected elders by show of hands

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Although the name “Jehovah’s Witnesses” is a scriptural concept, are Christians to be witnesses for Jehovah or Jesus?

 There is not a single scripture that calls Christians witnesses of Jehovah. On the other hand Christians are commissioned to be “witnesses of Jesus” (Acts 1:8; Rev. 20:4) and “ambassadors of Christ” (2 Cor. 5:20). The commission given by Jesus was to be his witnesses by preaching the Gospel – Matt. 24:14.

 The Jews witnessed for Jehovah not because they preached God’s Word, but because God revealed His glory by the miraculous manner in which he dealt with them.

 In Isaiah, God tells Israel, “Ye are my witnesses.” (43 & 44). In these two chapters, Isaiah establishes five historic facts concerning who are “Witnesses” of Jehovah.

 The “Witnesses” of Jehovah…

 Were delivered from the land of Egypt (43:3)

Offered animal sacrifices to the Lord (43:23)

Transgressed the Law Covenant (43:24,25)

Are forgiven for the Lord’s sake (43:25)

Are being regathered from all over the world to the Holy Land (43:5,6)

 These five identifications are true of only the Jews! It is clear that the Jews, the “ancient people,” “my chosen” are the real “Witnesses” of Jehovah. – 44:7; 43:20

 Some conclude that the Jews have long forfeited this title, the last scriptural assertion concerning the “Witnesses” of Jehovah was a prophecy that is only now in the process of fulfillment. The Jews are being regathered from all over the world to the Land of Israel. Their regathering has been motivated by more than just religious fervor, the Bible reveals that after the Jews are regathered in their Land, then the Lord will bring them through experiences that will gradually increase their faith and enkindle a true religious vitality that will reach their “inward parts” and fit them for their special role in God’s Kingdom on earth (Isa. 2:1-4). 

The Jews are “Witnesses” of Jehovah from two standpoints. First, God has revealed His power and glory by the miraculous manner in which He has dealt with them (Isa. 43:9-12). God delivered them from Egypt, led them through the Red Sea, sustained them in the wilderness, led them through the River Jordan, gave them the land of Canaan and made them a nation. During their chastening and dispersion, the phenomenal preservation of the people of Israel over the centuries as a distinct and homogeneous people among nations is itself a miracle of history. They have left blood-stained footprints of martyrdom in every nation they have trod. Neither persecution, nor famine, nor any other force was able to cause them to be assimilated. However, after 2,000 years—contrary to every pattern of history—they are re-established in their homeland, an independent nation. Surely the Lord’s power and glory has been witnessed through this people!

 The second way they are “Witnesses” of Jehovah is how their history proves the validity of God’s Word-the Bible. Every detail of their history has been prophesied and fulfilled, or is in the process of fulfillment. Their original establishment as a nation, their destruction as a nation and dispersion as a people, their regathering, the circumstances of their regathering, their future role—all were prophesied in the Bible. All this detailed fulfillment is an extraordinary witness to the immutability of God’s Word. Therefore, these are the reasons why the Lord has said of the Jew, “YE ARE MY WITNESSES, SAITH JEHOVAH.”

 The JWs today, like other replacement theology believing Christians do not see any special future for the Jews. However, “from the standpoint of God’s choice they are beloved for the sake of the fathers; for the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable” (Ro. 11:28,29). Since God promised that the Seed of Abraham would inherit the Land and bless all the families of the earth (Gen. 22:18,19; Jer. 32:41; Isa. 2:2,3) what right have Christians to annul this promise? These blessings were never forfeited. These promises are forever. – Amos 9:14,15 

If we say God has cancelled his promises to the Jews, what confidence can we have in His promises to Christians?

THE Bible tells us of three different paths a person may take, three ways in which he may go. Each leads to a different destination.

There is a broad way leading to destruction, a narrow way leading to life, and a highway of holiness. We read of these “ways” in Matthew and Isaiah:

“Wide is the gate, and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction, and many there be which go in thereat. Because strait is the gate, and narrow is the way which leadeth unto life; and few there be that find it.”–Matthew 7:13,14

“And a highway shall be there, and a way; and it shall be called the way of holiness.”–Isaiah 35:8

Six thousand years ago in Eden, when Adam disobeyed God and was condemned to death, he started upon this downward road. After 930 years, Adam reached its end–destruction, death. All of Adam’s race were born upon this road leading to death and share in Adam’s sentence, “Thou shalt surely die.” (Genesis 2:17) As years and centuries have rolled on, the downward path has become more and more smoothly worn, causing the race to speed more rapidly to destruction; daily the way becomes more glazed and slippery with sin. Not only does the way grow more slippery, but mankind daily loses the power of resistance. Today’s average length of human life is only a small fraction of Adam’s. Men reach the end of the road– destruction–much quicker than the first man.

 Cannot one resist the downward, sinful tendency and, by determined effort, escape from this way leading to destruction? Some have tried.

 During the past six thousand years a comparatively few have tried to change their course and retrace their steps. Though their efforts have been commendable, they have not been successful. It is like a man swimming against a current too swift for him; he is carried downstream in spite of his best efforts. Sin and death have reigned relentlessly over mankind, and driven them down this broad road to destruction.

 If no one can escape this way of death by his best efforts, it would seem that the situation is hopeless; all must go to destruction. But this is not so because a new way has been opened, the “narrow way” that leads to life instead of death. This way has been open for nearly two thousand years, but comparatively few have found it. It is a very exclusive path because a person does not enter it based upon his own worthiness, but by special invitation. This is why it is described as “narrow” or limited, having a “strait” or difficult “gate” which few find and enter.

 We are not to think that all except the few who walk the “narrow way” are condemned to everlasting destruction. There is another “way” called “the way of holiness.” (Isaiah 35:8)

This is the  “highway,” an easier way that all the rest of mankind will eventually take. It also leads to life and will be open to all at a time still future.

 Let us consider the very special “narrow way” to which some are now invited, called “a new and living way.” (Hebrews 10:20) Although the “narrow way” and the “highway” both lead to life, the “narrow way” leads to a stupendously higher form of life than the “highway.” The invitation to walk in this way is the most wonderful gift ever offered to anyone. It is to those who are so walking, to the true Christian, that Peter refers when he says that there “are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises, that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world.” (2 Peter 1:4) Those who walk this “way” are promised the highest form of life, a spirit life, with immortal divine bodies of the same nature as their Lord. Such are described as those who “seek for glory, and honor, and immortality.” (Romans 2:7) How high an honor this is! We are told, “No man taketh this honor unto himself, but he that is called of God.” (Hebrews 5:4)

 Is an invitation to walk the way leading to this great reward given only to the wisest, the most important and high-ranking people of the world? Not at all. On the contrary, the apostle Paul tells us:

 “Not many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called. But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world, to confound the wise.”–1 Corinthians 1:26,27

Consideration is not given to race or nationality. Those who attain the divine nature are selected “out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation.” (Revelation 5:9)

 The basis of any approach to life is Jesus Christ and this applies to the “narrow way.” Jesus said, “I am the way, and the truth, and the life.” (John 14:6) When Adam disobeyed God and caused the whole race to enter the broad, downward road to destruction, God did not abandon mankind. Although he permitted evil conditions to prevail for a time to teach valuable lessons, he still loved his human creation. He loved mankind so much that he provided a redeemer from death.

 “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”–John 3:16

 By God’s arrangement, Jesus came to earth as a man and gave his life as the ransom price for Adam and his race. This guarantees “that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust.” (Acts 24:15)

 Those who walk the “narrow way” receive the merit of Jesus’ ransom sacrifice beforehand so they may be justified in God’s sight. They consecrate to God and become acceptable sacrifices themselves. These are said to walk in the footsteps of Jesus. As we read, “It is a faithful saying; For if we be dead with him, we shall also live with him. If we suffer, we shall also reign with him.”–2 Timothy 2:11,12

 The promise to these is, “Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life.” (Revelation 2:10) When this special church class is complete, the merit of Jesus ransom sacrifice will be applied to all others. Then that third way, the wonderful “highway of holiness,” will be opened. (See Isaiah 35:8-10)

 What will that “highway” will be like? We read that “it shall be called the way of holiness.” It is a way that leads to righteousness. It is God’s kingdom under Christ, soon to be fully established on earth, that will lead the people to righteousness and human perfection.

Then it says, “The unclean shall not pass over it, but it shall be for those.” This means that it is the purpose of God’s kingdom to cleanse the unclean, to take away their sins. When the kingdom has done its work, there will be no more sin. No person who remains unclean will pass completely through that kingdom.

 Then it says, “The wayfaring men, though fools, shall not err therein.” Under Christ’s benevolent government, the way to righteousness will be made so plain and simple that even those who are foolish and inclined to stray will make no mistake. “No lion shall be there, nor any ravenous beast shall go up thereon.” We read that now “your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, walketh about, seeking whom he may devour.” (1 Peter 5:8) In that kingdom this will no longer be the case. Satan will be restrained. His evil influence will not be felt on that “highway.” Neither will the “ravenous beasts” of tyranny, injustice, violence and oppression be found there. Instead there will be peace and tranquility, security and love.

 “But the redeemed shall walk there; and the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come to Zion, with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads.”

 The “ransomed” are those for whom Christ died, and Christ “tasted death for every man.” These are “the ransomed of the Lord” who shall return from the dead in a great resurrection. They will come to “Zion,” which means the heavenly kingdom that will then rule the world. What a time of singing and joy it will be! Families parted by death will be reunited; pain, sickness, sin and death will be no more; happiness will fill the earth. “They shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away!”

 But the path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more and more unto the perfect day.”  – Prov. 4:18

 This text could hardly be referring to a steadily increasing light of truth all through the Gospel Age.

 In Jesus’ day it was already shining brightly: “Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world, he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness.” – John 8:12

Soon after the apostles fell asleep, the truth became mixed with error in the great falling away. History shows that during the “Dark Ages” error held sway. Certainly the truth was not shining more brightly than in Jesus’ day.

“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition.” –  2 Thess. 2:3

This text refers not to a continual changing of what constitutes the truth but to an increasing appreciation of the truth in our own individual lives as we study it and live by it. 

The text may also have reference to a clearer understanding of Bible prophecies as they are being fulfilled more completely before us.

 Restoration of Truth.

 Meat in due season was provided by means of a faithful and wise servant.

“And the Lord said, Who then is that faithful and wise steward, whom his lord shall make ruler over his household, to give them their portion of meat in due season.” –  Luke 12:42

 The truth was restored at the Lord’s second presence.

“Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he cometh shall find so doing.” – Luke 12:43

 Brother Charles Taze Russell was the servant, or as pictured in Revelation, the special messenger to the seventh period of the church, just as other individuals such as Luther were used in former periods of the church’s history.

 “The seven stars are the angels (Greek AGGELOS, “messengers”) of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.” –

 The servant received all the basic doctrines of truth from the Lord, while former messengers received only certain phases of truth. Thus he would need no successors.

“He will make him ruler over all that he hath.” – Luke 12:44

 Both the faithful and wise servant and the evil servant are individuals, not organizations, since their work is in connection with fellow-servants, who also are individuals.

 “If that evil servant shall say in his heart, my lord delayeth his coming; and shall begin to smite his fellowservants.” –  Matt. 24:46,49

 The “meat in due season” consisted of:

A restoration of the doctrines taught by Jesus and the apostles which had been contaminated as the church fell away. Jude 3 – Ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints.

An understanding of certain time features of God’s plan which were not to be revealed until then.

“Go thy way, Daniel: for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end … None of he wicked shall understand, but the wise shall understand.”  – Dan. 12:9, 10

 Doctrines are not to be continually changing.

 What was truth in 1916 is still truth; or else we would have to say that the “truth movement” was an “error movement” at one time. Once doctrine has been proved by the Word of God, it is truth and is not to be cast off a few years later.

1 Thess. 5:21 – Prove all things; hold fast that which is good.

 Acts 2:42 – And they continued steadfastly in the apostles’ doctrine.

 Eph. 4:14 – That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine.

Rom. 16:17 – Brethren, mark them which cause divisions and offences contrary to the doctrine which ye have learned.

 Heb. 13:9 – Be not carried about with divers and strange doctrines. For it is a good thing that the heart be established with grace.

Col. 1:21-23 – And you, that were sometime alienated and enemies in your mind by wicked works, yet now hath he reconciled … to present you holy and unblameable and unreproveable in his sight: If ye continue in the faith grounded and settled, and be not moved away from the hope of the gospel.

Mal. 3:6 – For I am the Lord, I change not.

So-called “new light” has not clarified the truth.

It has merely resulted in going back to the old error of restricting the love and mercy of God

“The truth will set you free!” John 8:32

JESUS MADE a true statement in John 8:32 when he said, “You will know the truth and the truth will set you free.” Jesus said those words to the Jews who believed on him, but also in the hearing of the Scribes and Pharisees who wanted to kill him. The question then arises, how were those Jews who believed on him to be made free? Free from what? As they said, they were not in bondage to anyone. But we ask, were they really free?

 It seems quite clear that Jesus was referring to the traditions and teachings of the Pharisees. As he pointed out in the 23rd chapter of Matthew, though they claimed to sit in Moses’ seat, they did not follow the teachings of Moses, but bound up heavy loads on men. Claiming to sit in Moses’ seat, and that Abraham was their father, they took the position that they were the successors of Moses and Abraham by Jehovah’s arrangement. Therefore, whatever interpretation they put upon the law was to be accepted as though from God.

That position and attitude has prevailed these many years even to this day. It was shortly after the Apostles passed from the scene that the Catholic Church came into existence. They took that same position: that now they were the channel by which the great God Jehovah was dealing with his people. They claimed that Peter was the first Pope, that from that time all Popes were successors to Peter, and whatever the Catholic Church was to bind on earth was to be bound in heaven. If one were to sin against or disagree with them on spiritual matters, that one was considered sinning against God Many Protestant churches have made similar claims.

 A Channel of God?

Today we have yet another organization making the same claim, i.e., that they are the channel by which Jehovah God is now dealing with his people. That channel is what this organization likes to call “the faithful and discrete slave class” who in turn use the Watchtower Bible & Tract  Society to publish what it likes to call “the truth” or “newly revealed truth from Jehovah God.”

 That the Watchtower Society takes the position that it is used by Jehovah by and through this “faithful and discrete slave class” is well documented in its publications. It says this class is in fulfillment of Matt. 24:45-47, and that Jehovah God is now using them to disseminate Bible truths by and through the Watchtower Bible & Tract Society and by the use of the Watchtower magazine. (See The Watchtower, 1963, page 338, par. 17).

 The Watchtower, 1958, pages 485-488, under the heading “The Watchtower Society in God’s Purpose,” endeavors to relate the “Society” with Jehovah’s channel of communication, starting with Abel down through the Apostles and then to our day culminating with the “Society.” Even stronger words are used in The Watchtower, 1952, page 79, par. 10, in which it states “… God interprets and teaches, through Christ the chief servant, who in turn uses the discrete slave as the visible channel…” meaning of course the “Society.” On that same page in par. 11, it further states “. . . The truths we publish are the ones provided through the discrete slave class or organization …”

 Stronger yet, is a statement made in The Watchtower, 1965, page 351, in answer to a “Question from readers” which asks the question, “How can it be said that God’s visible organization was made strictly Theocratic in structure by 1938?…” In summary, their answer is that by 1932 The Watchtower Society began to be controlled by God or was God ruled and by 1938 was fully God ruled or fully Theocratic.

 By their own claim, all scriptural explanation comes from Jehovah God and is published in The Watchtower. Now if this be true, then there will be no contradiction or changing of explanation from one Watchtower to another. Stated another way, what was published as truth since 1938 must still be truth today. (Mal. 3:6)

 An Unchanging Organization?

With this thought in mind, let us go on to see if the facts support their contention. Is the Watchtower Society (Channel) indeed as unchanging as the God it claims to represent? In the book entitled “Jehovah’s Witnesses in the Divine Purpose,” written in dialogue fashion, on page 14, mention is made that for the first time, in 1929, the Watchtower made known to their people the true meaning of Rom. 13:1-7; namely that Paul in this scripture was not referring to the governments of this world, but was referring to Jehovah God and Christ Jesus.

And in the book “Let God Be Tine” written in 1952, published by the Watch Tower Society, we read on page 248, referring to Rom. 13:1-7: “The higher powers there mentioned are the principal ruling factors of God’s congregation, namely, the invisible governing body of God’s kingdom …”

Again, in The Watchtower, 1952, page 375, par. 6, we read: “The Superior authorities Paul is speaking of could not refer to the political powers of Caesar governments. In the scriptures at Rev. 13:2. NW, the Bible specifically states that Satan is the one who has empowered and authorized the old world Caesars. Hence the superior authorities in Rom. 13 which God commissions include only the theocratic ruling authorities and exclude Caesar’s authorities. . .”

 But now note what was written in The Watchtower, 1962, page 683, par. 7, discussing this same subject. “…Paul is telling God’s holy ones how to conduct themselves among men outside ‘the Christian congregation, ‘all men’ including even an enemy who does evil to Christians, hence an individual found outside the congregation, not inside, then, right afterwards, Paul passes on to his discussion of the ‘Superior Authorities’ and thus has his sights focused on, not what is inside the congregation, but what is outside it. So the ‘Superior Authorities’ have their setting logically in the world outside the congregation … *”

 Not Founded By Pastor C. T. Russell

Note the asterisk at the end of the quote, which refers to a footnote at the bottom of the page. That footnote refers to “The Divine Plan of the Ages” a book written in 1886 by the founder of the Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, Charles Taze Russell. The reference is to page 266 which gives in effect the same explanation now given by The Watchtower of 1962 on Rom. 13:1-7.

We note here, that the claim is absolutely untrue Jehovah’s Witnesses were founded by C. T. Russell. He died in 1916. Jehovah’s Witnesses, per se, were founded in 1931 by none other than J. F. Rutherford who radically changed name and doctrine beyond recognition and substituted instead his own theology. That theology has become the very basis of the Witnesses’ teaching today. A greater detail as to the many doctrinal changes will follow in our Part Two – A Refutation of Selected Doctrines of Jehovah’s Witnesses.

 For decades Charles Taze Russell’s legacy has been associated with Jehovah’s Witnesses in published accounts that inaccurately list him as their founder. In 1997, Professor David S. Doran corrected the matter by writing the editor of The Cambridge Biographical Encyclopedia and delivering a more accurate account of Brother Charles Taze Russell’s life. Through Professor Doran’s efforts, the second edition presenting the truth was published in 1998 and reflects these changes. We quote as follows:  

“Russell, Charles Taze , known as Pastor Russell (1852-1916). Religious leader, founder of what is commonly called the “Bible Student Movement,” born in Pittsburgh, PA. As a Congregationalist, he struggled with the concept of eternal torment, his subsequent studies leading him to conclude that the Biblical hell is oblivion, that the millennium began in 1874, and that a period of social and political upheaval would lead to a peaceable kingdom on earth. After his death, many followers abandoned his Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society (1879), which under the leadership of Joseph Rutherford moved in other directions and ultimately — became known as Jehovah’s Witnesses (1931).” — Bible Students Newsletter, p. 7, Spring, 1999

 Watchtower Structure Changes

“A press release issued Tuesday (October 14, 2000) by the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania Inc., as the Witnesses are officially called, talked about “revisions” in legal structure and said that they were dictated by the need to keep pace with growth.” “Some ‘revisions.’ The president resigned, the ruling Governing Body was stripped of its legal power, and three new corporations were set up to run the society’s U.S. operations. Milton Henschel, 80, the fifth president, stepped down after eight years, along with six other directors of the Watchtower Society. He remains a member of the Governing Body, which had run the 5.9- million member society with an absolutist hand.”

 “The Governing Body was not abolished, but under the new setup, it will oversee only religious affairs, among them Bible doctrine, evangelization and pastoral care. Henschel’s successor as chief legal officer is Don Adams, 75, a longtime insider who has spent 54 years at the world headquarters in Brooklyn Heights.”

 “But, even more significant than the change at the top was the corporate realignment, with three new not-for-profits formed to assume control of U.S. legal and administrative operations. One will oversee construction of houses of worship and technical assistance. Another will supervise personnel. A third will direct a wide range of congregational services. “I don’t believe Witnesses look to any one person now as their leader,” Pellechia said.”  From: News and Views | City Beat | Saturday, October 14, 2000

What would one suppose the reason for this momentous change might be? Could it be that they are being accused of having a central head and that they don’t wish to be identified in this way? After all, the accusation was made by the Society in the past that Bible Students were following after a man, Charles Taze Russell who dressed in haberdasher’s fashions and presented out-of-date teachings from the Bible, whereas they continued to progress in “New light?” They have restructured with multitudinous corporations and have continued their “Governing Body,” that makes all the rulings in matters of faith directly under Christ and by His Spirit. How Can this be? As you will see in the succeeding pages, there have been many changes backward and forward on the doctrines of the Watchtower as published in its pages.

 The above changes were not subject to the vote of the congregations. They were just told that this is the way it is now going to be. There will be no central head. There will only be the governing body who will make all decisions in religious matters. The Watchtower organization rules with absolutist power – “an absolutist hand” – and this has not changed. You knew where things were coming from with one at the top; but with this change you are left in the dark as to who made the ruling or changes. This is not God’s way. His way is clearly outlined in His Word – it is the rule of the congregation – Laodicea. (Rev. 3:14-22)  

The Elders, and not autocrats, are chosen by the Congregations after a democratic fashion according to their recognized Spirituality and submission to righteous requirements. (1Timothy 3:1-13) They are not “appointed in every place” except to begin the ecclesia arrangement which was new at that time and the Apostles were specially guided by the Holy Spirit. They were the ones upon whom the tongues of fire appeared. In our modern day, it becomes an excuse for the Society’s “flock” to render absolute control and obedience to an arranged program adopted by the leadership. You will not have any dissenters; for if they would dare to differ a trial would be called for, they would be disfelowshipped and would be looking in from the outside. This is very wrong and represents powerful control or domination. It is the same method as that adopted by the Roman Catholic Church.

 If the “Channel” became cleansed in and after 1919, and was completely cleansed by 1938, and as stated in the Watchtower 1959, page 601, the elective Elders before that time were not mature or theocratic. Why does that channel now go back to the explanation given in 1886? What happened to that “Channel,” or its “governing body” from 1919 or 1938 to 1962? Had it or they been tuned to the wrong station?

The Watchtower Society teaches Jehovah’s Witnesses that blood transfusions are unbiblical. An inquiry made to the American Red Cross shows that one hundred people per thousand, or ten percent, need blood in some form every year. With the need for blood transfusions so great and with numerous cases of Jehovah’s Witnesses sacrificing their lives for this Watchtower teaching, we should indeed seriously search the Scriptures for God’s truth in this matter.

 The Watchtower uses three main Scripture references in support of its theory. Let’s examine each one. The first verse is Genesis 9:4. Here a command is given that refers to “the eating of blood”, certainly not receiving transfusions. Noah is commanded not to eat flesh that still had the blood in it; in other words, don’t eat living animals, or animals not properly drained of blood. Their second “proof text” is found at Leviticus 17:10-16. Again, we find reference to the actual eating of the blood of animals. These verses are no way connected with transfusions between humans.

 The final reference examined is Acts 15:20. Here it says to “abstain from things contaminated by idols and from fornication and from what is strangled and from blood.” We read in Acts 15:21, “For Moses, from ancient generations has in every city those who preach him, since he is read in the synagogues every Sabbath.” It now becomes clear that abstaining from these four items is referred back to the law of Moses in Leviticus 17. Therefore, we can see, beyond dispute, that the abstaining from blood does in no way refer to receiving blood transfusions as the Watchtower’s interpretation wishes it to.

 It is important to understand that eating and transfusing are two different bodily processes. Blood which is eaten is digested and destroyed. Blood which is transfused is not eaten, digested, or destroyed. Why? Because eating blood involves the body’s digestive system, and transfusion involves the circulatory system.

A similar Watchtower teaching regarding the rejection of vaccinations, was classified as Biblical truth in the 1930’s. However, Jehovah’s Witnesses today are free to receive vaccinations and even encouraged to do so Will the doctrine on blood be changed also? The saddest fact is that because of its present teaching on blood transfusions, the Watchtower has led many to a pre-mature grave.

Good Tidings Message No. 1

Speaking to the children of Israel, the Lord said unto Moses: “I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass, that whoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.” Deuteronomy 18:18- 19 The message of Moses is full of importance to Israel and he should apply it to his heart. God promised Moses that from among the children of Israel he would raise up a prophet like Moses. This prophet would speak God’s word to Israel. The rejection of this prophet by Israel, Moses stated, would bring very serious consequences. This is the key message to the Jews from the prophecies of Moses. Each Israelite will have to decide for himself whether the disaster which today has befallen Israel is not to a great extent due to his rejection of God’s Prophet.

Moreover Moses further prophesied to Israel: “And ye shall be left few in number, whereas ye were as the stars of heaven for multitude, because thou wouldest not obey the voice of the Lord thy God.

“And it shall come to pass, that as the Lord rejoiced over you to do you good, and to multiply you; So the Lord will rejoice over you to destroy you, and to bring you to nought; and ye shall be plucked from off the land wither thou goest to possess it.

“And the Lord shall scatter thee among all the people, from one end of the earth even unto the other; and there thou shalt serve other gods, which neither thou nor thy fathers have known, even wood and stones.

“And among these nations shalt thou find no ease, neither shall the soles of thy feet have rest, but the Lord shall give thee there a trembling heart, and failing of the eyes, and sorrow of the mind: “And thy life shall hand in doubt before thee: and thou shalt fear day and night, and shalt have none assurances of life.” Deuteronomy 28:62- 66

Many years have passed since this message was delivered to Israel. As foretold, the GLORY OF ISRAEL IS GONE. Can any thinking Jew, as he meditates upon his lot today, doubt the fulfillment of the words of Moses” If Israel had read the writings of Moses carefully and thoughtfully, and especially the heart searching message to Israel, as found in the book of Deuteronomy, would he, today have been without God and without hope. All that Moses stated as quoted in the above extract has been fully, definitely, and literally, fulfilled in Israel. Could Moses have more fully described the lot of Israel today” Instead of being the most glorious nation of the world as they were under the rule of King Solomon, Israel today is a scattered nation. Today Israel has been scattered from one end of the earth to the other. He has been destroyed, persecuted, his efforts have been brought to nought, and he has been plucked out of every land to which he departed for rest and shelter. He has had no rest, no peace, fearful of the future, and the sorrow in his eyes betrays the anguish of his mind and heart. The messages from Moses are vital and decidedly crucial to Israel. In the, Israel will find the cause of his rejection by God. If the Jewish people will but meditate over their lot, if they will seriously think of the present in the light of their past history, if they will cast off prejudices caused by Godless people who were the instrumentalities of God in carrying out his judgments against Israel, then Israel must conclude that their present fate has come upon them because they “Would not obey the voice of the Lord their God” Deuteronomy 28:6 and because they have rejected Jesus, the anointed, whom the sincere people of God have accepted as the Prophet whom God raised up from among the children of Israel. Well may Israel note the warning: “And it shall come to pass (as Moses stated in Deuteronomy 18:19) that whosoever shall not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.”

Israel must study his present situation. If Jesus, the Anointed is the Prophet of whom Moses spoke then his message should be accepted and he himself should be accepted also as the prophet from God. There is but one way in which the Jews may more fully be led to accept Jesus and to give, in faith, their hearts to God, and that is, to read the accounts of the words, the work and the testimony of Jesus as found in the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, and then to compare what they have read in the New Testament with the message of Moses and the Prophets as found in the Old Testament. Of the Old Testament writings Jesus said and his words are a challenge to every Jew who is searching after God: “Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.

“Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father: there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye trust. “For had ye believed Moses, ye would have believed me: for he wrote of me.

“But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my Words””John 5:39, 45- 47.

Strange as it may seem to the uninitiated Jew, Jesus acknowledge but one God for he taught: “Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God is one LORD.” How dear to the heart of every Jew is the statement of the oneness of God. Jesus proclaimed himself as the Son of God and he announced the privilege of sonship to every Jew who would come to God through him. Even David spoke of Jesus as God”s Son when he stated in Psalm 2:12 “Kiss the Son, lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way, when his wrath is kindled but a little.

BLESSED ARE ALL THEY THAT PUT THEIR TRUST IN HIM.”

Can you join in with David and claim the blessings which he promised to those who would acknowledge the Prophet of God whom he here designates as the Son of God” The writings of David are complete with prophesies which definitely point to Jesus as the hoped- for son of David, the King of the Jews, for David said: “The Lord (Jehovah) said unto my Lord, (Jesus the Anointed). Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.” Psalms 110:1 Through Moses and the Prophets the coming of the Messiah was definitely foretold. Yet when he first came, they were not able to receive him. Why” Because the glorious reign of Jesus as David”s son will appear in glory at the second coming of Jesus. When he first came, he came as the fulfillment of the Passover Lamb to take away the sin of the world.

“Behold the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world.” John 1:29

Little did the Jews realize that the first work of the Messiah would be that of the atonement. For hundreds of years God, through the sacrifices of animals, had sought to prepare Israel for the Lamb of God which really could take away sin. If they had read Daniel they would have learned “Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself.”Daniel 9:26.

Israel was to some extent able to see the ultimate glorious Messiah, but he failed to see that the future glories were dependent upon the need for present atonement as the Jewish prophet Isaiah has very definitely foretold: “he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us All.”Isaiah 53:5- 6

Because Israel has neglected to hear the message of God”s Prophet, the message of salvation has gone to the Gentiles just as the Jewish prophet Hosea had foretold: “And it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people, there it shall be said unto them, Ye are the sons of the living God.”Hosea 1:10 The privilege of the Kingdom is the birthright of the children of Israel. They were the Holy Nation.

Why should all the blessings of God go to the strange people because God”s chosen people are blinded to their own hopes as foretold by Moses and the prophets” Israel should lift up his eyes and behold the mercies of God. There is a reason for the sad plight of Israel. The reason can not be found in human social neglect.

God has abandoned Israel and Israel is too sorrowful to know the cause thereof. Jesus said that he came to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, but Israel’s house is desolate and the sad part of this crisis is that Israel does not understand the cause of his bereavement. He seeks to better his condition through worldly education and in commerce, not realizing his neglect of God and the prophet who spoke in God’s name.

Israel does not realize that as the Jewish prophet Daniel had foretold in Daniel, chapter two, that the Jewish Kingdom and power was turned over to the Gentiles and that the Gentile rule would continue until Messiah’s kingdom was set up in glory. The Babylonian King first received the kingdom from God (Daniel 2:37). The time between the overthrow of the old Jewish regime, until the coming of the Messiah for the second time, is called in the Scriptures “THE TIMES OF THE GENTILES.”

During these times the Gentiles are given the opportunity to rule and all realize what a terrible Job the gentiles have made of it. The terrible accounts in our newspapers seem to indicate that the Times of the Gentiles is nearly over. The conflagration in Europe indicates that soon the Gentiles will be dispossessed and the Kingdom of God would be established as the Jewish prophet Daniel foretold in Daniel 2:44. In the meantime Jesus said:

“Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.” Luke 21:24 Jesus definitely foretold the desolation of Israel, while Israel still had their glorious Temple. Note also the reason, Jesus assigned for the distress of Israel: “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, YOUR HOUSE IS LEFT UNTO YOU DESOLATE. For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say, “Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.” Matthew 23:37- 39 Can Israel turn from her prejudices and turn to the prophet whom God has raised up” Let Israel remember that no real child of god has ever persecuted Israel. Let Israel realize that these are the times of the Gentiles and that the Gentiles have trodden down Israel, but let not Israel think that these Gentiles are God”s people. Since the coming of the Messiah to become “The Lamb of God That Taketh Away The Sin of the World,” the people of God have been selected from among both the Jews and Gentiles to become part of the Kingdom which will be set up when the Messiah come in glory.

Jesus said: “Many shall come from the east and west, and shall sit down with Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in the Kingdom of heaven, but the children of the kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness.” Matthew 8:11- 12 Darkness will still control most of Israel, but this pamphlet goes out with the hope and the prayer that some of God’s chosen people may still see the light of the glory of god as it was proclaimed in the words of that Prophet, of whom Moses spake, a prophet who was raised up from the Jews, and who was sent to proclaim the message of God. Since his time it should be interesting to note that God has not sent Israel another prophet nor has Israel received another message from God. Can Israel be constrained to say “Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord” As each Israelite accepts Jesus as the prophet from god, the Lamb of God that taketh away the sin of the world, he is thus enable to see Jesus. The blessed relationship of divine approval is his lot. Today the glory of Israel is gone! Today the house of Israel is desolate! The hope of Israel still remaineth in the Prophet raised up from among the Jews.

Israel. Can you see” Can you turn from unbelief in prayer to the Living God and in faith accept Moses” prophet and live” Let Israel from his hear say: “Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.”

(Christianity came in the fulfillment of the hopes expressed by the Jewish prophets. Jesus confined his message only to “the lost sheep of the house of Israel.” Later the privilege went to the Gentiles. Let it still be remembered that Jesus is the King of the Jews.)

Near Jerusalem, for nearly 4,000 years, deep in ancient tombs lie Abraham, Sarah, Isaac, Rebecca. For nearly 4000 years, revered alike by Jews and Muslims and Christians. Their bones rest on in the hope of a resurrection.

Jerusalem—Jerusalem the golden; Jerusalem the invaded—by Assyrians, by Babylonians, by Medo-Persians, by Seleucids, by Romans, by Mamelukes, by Crusaders, by Ottoman Turks, and by assorted Arab hordes.

Jerusalem—laid to rest in countless tombs carpeting the western slopes of Olivet. Jerusalem—its bones dried and scattered, bones dead for nearly 2000 years, bones resting on in the hope of a resurrection.

Can These Bones Live?

Many years ago in the city of ancient Babylon the Jewish prophet Ezekiel was asked this very question in a vision.

“The hand of the Lord was upon me, and carried me out in the spirit of the Lord, and set me down in the midst of the valley which was full of bones.

And caused me to pass by them round about: and, behold, there were very many bones in the open valley; and lo, they were very dry. And he said unto me “Son of man, can these bones live?

“And I answered, O Lord God, thou knowest.

“Again he said unto me “Prophesy upon these bones, and say unto them, O ye dry bones, hear the word of the Lord.

Thus saith the Lord God unto these bones; behold, I will cause breath to enter into you, and ye shall live:

And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the Lord.

“So I prophesied as I was commanded: and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold a shaking, and the bones came together, bone to his bone,

And when I beheld, lo, the sinews and the flesh came up upon them, and the skin covered them above: but there was no breath in them.

Then he said unto me, “Prophesy unto the wind, prophesy, son of man, and say to the wind, Thus saith the Lord God, Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.

“So I prophesied as he commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood up upon their feet, an exceeding great army.”

A dramatic story! Dramatically told! But what does it all mean?

As Ezekiel would say, “Hear the word of the Lord.”

“Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel: behold, they say, Our bones are dried, and our hope is lost: we are completely cut off.

Therefore prophesy and say unto them, Thus saith the Lord God: Behold, O my people, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel.

And ye shall know that I am the Lord, when I have opened your graves, O my people, and brought you up out of your graves.

And shall put my Spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I shall place you in your own land: then ye shall know that I the Lord have spoken it, and performed it, saith the Lord.”

Since the twin destructions of Jerusalem under the mighty armies of the Roman generals Titus and Hadrian, the Jewish people entered a long period of dispersion, Diaspora, and their national hopes, like the bones in their ancient graves deep in the valley of the Kidron have been dead.

They have been dry bones. Bones with little hope of ever reviving. They have been scattered bones. A people

dispersed to nearly every country in the world with only their common faith as a bond. They have been bones “completely cut off.”

As the prophet Hosea writes, “without a king, without a prince, without a sacrifice, without an image, without an ephod and without teraphim.”

Can These Bones Live?

It’s a difficult question!

It’s a serious question!

It’s a question worth asking!

History answers, “No!”

Babylon never came back!

Phoenicia has not returned!

Nor has Tyre; nor has Elam; or Philistia.

Can These Bones Live?

Politics answers, “No!”

Not after being totally forbidden to inhabit their ancient homeland! Not after being denied access to their religious shrines! Not after being dispersed so widely throughout the world!

Military strategists answer, “Never will these bones live! Not after their military might was so completely broken! Not after being denied responsibile positions in the countries of their dispersion! Not after being so reviled in the few countries that gave them refuge!

But the Bible answers, “Yes!”

“These bones shall live!”

Current Events resoundingly echo:

“Yes!”

In a twentieth-century miracle, the nation of Israel has been reborn—reborn in its ancient homeland; reborn against tremendous odds; reborn amidst a vastly outnumbered opposition.

Reborn and thriving!

Can These Bones Live?

For over a century the history of the Middle East has been moving in steady steps toward the fulfillment of this prophecy of Ezekiel.

In 1878, after a ban of Seventeen Hundred Forty-three years, Israelis were given permission to own property in the ancient land of their forefathers.

In 1878 , they immediately established their first settlement, Petach Tikvah. Their return had begun.

In 1897, Theodor Herzl issued a worldwide call to organize the Zionist movement.

In 1917, Her Majesty’s government of Great Britain endorsed a Jewish state in the famous Balfour Declaration.

From 1936 to 1945 over six million Jews were killed in the Nazi Holocaust.

In 1948, as a result of a United Nations partition, Israel became a sovereign nation.

Then, immediately challenged by an overpowering Arab force, an Israeli victory legitimized their declaration of statehood.

In 1956, an invasion led by General Nasser of Egypt was soundly repelled.

In 1967, the six-day war of Israel against another Arab coalition enlarged the borders of the new state and Jerusalem was united once again under Jewish control.

In 1973, on the eve of the Jewish high holy day of Yom Kippur, a third Arab attack was again set back.

In 1989 the dismantled countries of the Soviet Union permitted the Jewish refuseniks to return to Israel.

In 1991 and 1992 repeated Scud attacks by Saddam Hassein of Iraq failed to dislodge the Israelis.

Dry bones returning to life. Scattered bones have become regathered bones. Bare bones have assumed sinew and flesh. Covered bones have been topped with skin.

But Can These Bones Live?

What is the meaning of it all?

In the prophesy of Ezekiel the resurrection of the dry bones was a four-step process:

First: a thundrous noise and shaking brought the bones together.

Second: the regathered bones took on sinew and flesh.

Third: skin covered the bones and,

Fourth: after a lapse of time, breath came into the bones and they lived.

Let’s look at these steps, one by one, and see how they have been fulfilled.

“As I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold a shaking, and the bones came together, bone to his bone.”

* From Russia.

* From Germany.

* From Syria.

* From the United States.

* From England.

* From South America.

* From Yemen.

* From India.

* From Ethiopia.

* From China and Japan.

* From all over the world.

Israel – the people of history—now, the people of a miracle! Dry bones, shaking off the dust of twenty centuries.

Regathering from every corner of the earth to Israel.

Returning by boat, by plane and even by foot.

Returning to their ancient homeland In an ever-growing stream, like the salmon to its spawning ground. Attracted like metal filings to a magnet, the people of Israel return to their native land! In one immigration after another.

* Lured by the promises of Zionism.

* Attracted by the financial investments of the Hirsches and the Rothschilds.

* Driven by the pogroms of unfriendly nations.

* Hunted by the persecutions of Nazism and the Holocaust.

* There was no place like home.

And home was Israel!

“Next year in Jerusalem” became THIS YEAR IN JERUSALEM!

However, though you may gather bones from the whole world all you really have is a pile of dead bones!

But this was only the first step in the fulfillment of Ezekiel’s prophecy. Sinew, flesh, skin and life were yet to follow.

Ezekiel continues: “And when I beheld, lo, the sinews and the flesh came upon them.”

And so it was, even in those days when nationhood was but a vague hope, an infrastructure began to develop.

Under the encouragement of Chaim Weissman, the Hebrew University was formed. The Haganah, Mossad and Irgun formed the military muscle. Hadassah reached forth to provide medical services.

Ben Yehuda resurrected the dead Hebrew language. A shadow government with such strong ambassadorial figures as David Ben Gurion, Chaim Weissman, Levi Eshkol and Golda Meir began to function in exile.

Bones And Sinews Were Appearing.

But still they were just that; a government in exile. Skin had not yet appeared to give them the semblance of a nation.

And The Skin Covered Them From Above.

As the close of World War II exposed the atrocities of the Holocaust to the public eye, the climate was set for the United Nations motion to partition Palestine and pave the way for a Jewish state.

On May 14, 1948, the ears of the Jewish people were pinned to their radios as the vote in the U.N. was tallied.

In Jerusalem David Ben Gurion capped the results by announcing a new state . . . the state of Israel, reborn from the dust bins of history.

Immediate recognition by world powers, beginning with President Harry Truman of the United States gave legitimacy to their claim.

Like any new birth, there were the pains of travail. Within hours an Arab coalition attacked to drive the new state into the sea.

Jordan, Iraq and Saudi Arabia from the East; Lebanon and Syria from the North; Egypt from the South. Blocked on the West by the Mediterranean Naval armadas on the Western Sea. Outnumbered, surrounded, outgunned, Israel fought back desperately.

They fought back and, despite all odds, they won! The Bones had skin!

Israel Was A Nation!

“But there was no breath in them.”

To be alive in the sight of the nations around them was one thing, to be alive in the sight of God was another!

In Ezekiel’s prophecy there was a time lapse between the bones assembling, growing sinews and flesh, being covered with skin, and then receiving the breath of life.

Notice the last step: “Prophesy unto the wind, prophesy, son of man, and say to the wind, Thus saith the Lord God, Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe upon these slain, that they may live.”

As with Adam in Eden, “the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.”

In this prophecy, the breath, or life, was to come from the wind. Wind, throughout the Bible, even as in common usage, signifies trouble.

“Winds of war;” “winds of turmoil;” “winds of strife;” causing men to be as turbulent as the wind-driven waves of the sea.

Nor was it from wind alone, but specifically from “the four winds” that this breath was to come.

We read of these same “four winds” in a description of the future climactic battle of the ages in Revelation: “I saw four angels standing on the four corners of the earth, holding the four winds of the earth, that the wind should not blow on the earth, nor on any tree.”

These “four winds of earth,” a virtual whirlwind of anarchy, depict a period of trouble which particularly involves the newborn nation of Israel.

This battle is described in great prophetic detail in the 38th and 39th chapters of Ezekiel.

While time does not permit an elaborate discussion of these chapters, they describe an invasion of Israel by a coalition of nations “from the north” during a time when Israel is dwelling “in peace and safety.”

Aparallel account in Zechariah informs us that Jerusalem will be attacked and “the city shall be taken.”

But the defeat will be temporary for: “Then shall the Lord go forth, and fight against those nations, as when he fought in the day of battle.”

God gives the reasons for this final battle in many places in the Bible: Note what Ezekiel and Zephaniah prophecy: “I will purge out from among you the rebels, and them that transgress against me.”

“Then will I take away out of the midst of thee them that rejoice in thy pride; and thou shalt no more be haughty because of my holy mountain. I will also leave in the midst of thee an afflicted and poor people, and they shall trust in the name of the Lord. The remnant of Israel shall not do iniquity, nor speak lies: neither shall a deceitful tongue be found in their mouth: for they shall feed and lie down, and none shall make them afraid.”

Then “they shall know that I am the Lord. So will I make my holy name known in the midst of my people Israel; and I will not let them pollute my holy name any more: and the heathen shall know that I am the Lord, the Holy One of Israel.”

After trying heroically to save themselves by their own military might, Israel will learn their final lesson. It is their God alone who can ultimately bring deliverance and salvation.

The prophet Zechariah sums it up well:

“Not by might, Nor by power, But by my Spirit, saith the Lord of Hosts.”

It is then: knowing the weakness of their own might, knowing the strength of their God, seeking and finding their Messiah, renewed in their faith in the Word of God, that breath will come upon them.

That Breath Will Be The Spirit Of The Lord:

“I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him as one mourneth for his only son, and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.”

Breathing, they shall live! Living, they shall teach others how to live:

“The remnant of Jacob shall be in the midst of many people as a dew from the Lord, as the showers upon the grass, that tarrieth not for man, nor waiteth for the sons of men.”

“And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the Lord’s house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills: and all nations shall flow into it.

“And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.”

“In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold out of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you: for we have heard that God is with you.”

Thus we have God’s promise that these bones shall live again.!

But This Will Be Only The Beginning!

For we realize that these “bones that live” are an illustration of the resurrection of the dead.

For when these dry bones of Israel have breath and live, then the bones of Abraham and Sarah and Isaac and Rebecca shall also live.

* Then the bones of ancient Jewry shall also live.

* Then the bones of Muslims buried near the golden gate shall also live.

* Then the bones of Christians buried deep in the Kidron valley shall also live.

* Then the bones buried in neat rows in Flanders. poppy fields shall also live.

* Then the bones of all who have ever died shall come to life.

But When Will It Be?

The bones of Israel have been regathered! They already have sinew and flesh! The bones already have skin! Thus we are on the very brink of the fourth step coming to pass: Israel receiving the breath of life. However, not only Israel but all people will receive life.

For this will introduce the greatest event in all human history—the Kingdom of God!

The kingdom of which men have dreamed. The kingdom for which men have waited. The kingdom for which Christian have prayed:

“Thy Kingdom come, Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven.”

And what a kingdom that will be:

“Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened And the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. Then shall the lame man leap as an hart.And the tongue of the dumb sing: For in the wilderness shall waters break out, and streams in the desert.”

For “the ransomed of the Lord shall return, and come to Zion with songs and everlasting joy upon their heads: they shall obtain joy and gladness, and sorrow and sighing shall flee away.”

What a Promise!

The bones of Israel and all who have ever lived will become living bones, with flesh and blood—breathing bones, with life anew!

Yes, everyone,

* Jews

* Arabs

* Christians

* Heathen

* and Atheists.

* All men will all come forth from the tomb.

Unbelievable? Too good to be true? No! Our faith is greatly strengthened when we realize Israel’s dispersion among the nations, and their gradual return of favor, is a direct fulfillment of prophecy given thousands of years ago.

And so we CAN be assured that God’s promise of life to all who have ever lived, will also be fulfilled.

Rejoice!

Rejoice in life coming to Israel’s “dry bones!” Because it means that soon life will come to all the dead—regardless of their color, regardless of their creed, regardless of their nationality.

The return of Israel is the harbinger of the kingdom of God as surely as the robin is the harbinger of spring.

First Century Patterns The Bible Students are a small religious body who are following in the faith and character of the early Christian Church. We have been in existence for over 100 years. The Bible Students are located in many parts of the United States with many groups in the United Kingdom and Europe, Australia, New Zealand, North America, South East Asia and Africa. Like the first century Christians, we meet in homes, rented rooms and, in some cases, our own halls. Acts 1:13-14, 2:46-47, 18:7, 19:9, 28:30

We are a lay community patterned after first century Christianity. Each congregation is called an “ecclesia” (the New Testament word for Church). We have no paid clergy or church hierarchy. Members of each congregation are addressed as ‘Brother’ or ‘Sister’, and ALL are involved in organizing our activities. All members contribute their time and energy voluntarily in service to God. A strong common belief binds our brotherhood together. Rom 12:4-8; 1Cor 12:4-27; Gal 3:28

We accept the Bible [Old and New Testament] as our guide and believe it to be the inspired word of God.

Our Purpose

The purpose of the Bible Students Association and this website; is set for the defense of the only true foundation of the Christian’s hope now being so generally repudiated –

Redemption through the precious blood of “the man Christ Jesus who gave himself a ransom [a corresponding price, a substitute] for all.” 1 Peter 1:19; 1 Timothy 2:6.

Building up on this sure foundation the gold, silver and precious stones of the Word of God. 1 Corinthians 3:11-15; 2 Peter 1:5-11

Its further mission is to – “Make all see what is the fellowship of the mystery which …has been hid in God,…to the intent that now might be made known by the Church the manifold wisdom of God.” – “which in other ages was not made known unto the sons of men, as it is now revealed.” Ephesians 3:5-10.

To “show forth the praises of Him who hath called us out of darkness into his marvelous light.” 1 Peter 2:4

To reach others of the household of faith. Heb. 11:1, 6; Gal. 1-3

To witness the love and plan of God to all who have a hearing ear. Isa. 61:1-3.

Free from all parties, sects and creeds of men, while it seeks more and more to bring its every utterance into the fullest subjection to the will of God in Christ, as expressed in the Holy Scriptures. It is thus free to declare boldly whatsoever the Lord hath spoken – according to the Divine wisdom granted unto us to understand. Its attitude is not dogmatical, but confident; for we know whereof we affirm, treading with implicit faith upon the sure promises of God.

A Brief History

The Bible Students had their humble beginning in the late 1860s. In 1868, a young businessman named Charles Taze Russell, who feared the Lord, began studying with a small band of Christians independent of the creeds of the Churches, they soon discovered that many of the doctrines that were popularly taught and believed were inconsistent with the Bible. Dissatisfied, Mr. Russell devoted himself to a careful independent study of the Scriptures. He made no claim to any vision or personal revelation.

The work of Mr. Russell attracted the support of others in America and Britain who were convinced of the truth of his conclusions. Together they formed the Bible Students Association. Since then, Bible Student communities have been established in many countries all over the world. [for a more fuller detailed account of Charles Taze Russell and the Bible Students, please visit the following Link: Soldiers of the Cross

What we believe

The Bible is God’s only revealed message to mankind, given to bring responsive individuals to the obedience of faith. The Bible is our only authority and we teach that it should be read prayerfully and with care at every opportunity. Acts 17:11; Rom 16:26; 2Tim 3:16-17; 2Pet 1:20-21

There is one Almighty God, the Father, of whom are all things. 1 Cor. 8:6; Psa. 83:18; 90:1, Ex. 3:14; 6:3; John 14:28

There is one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things. 1 Cor. 8:6; John 3:16; Col. 1:15-18

The Holy Spirit is the divine will, influence, or power of the Almighty Creator. Psa. 33:6-9; 1 Cor. 2:9, 10; Joel 2:28, 29; Luke 11:13

Because of disobedience, Adam was condemned to death – not eternal torment. Gen. 2:16, 17; Ezek. 18:4, 20; Rom. 6:23; 5:17

The seed of Abraham is in Christ, Head and body members, who sacrifice their earthly hopes in exchange for the heavenly hope of becoming heirs of God. Gen. 22:15-18; Gal. 3:16, 29; 4:28-31; Rom. 12:1; Psa. 50:5

The New Covenant, whose mediator between God and man is the Christ, will be sealed with the precious blood of the dear Redeemer after all of his merit has passed through the fully consecrated of the Gospel Age. The New Covenant will be inaugurated with those with faith in Israel, but in the course of time all others will have a full opportunity to become the earthly seed of Abraham. Jer. 31:31-34; Heb. 8:7-12; Gen. 25:1; Acts 3:22; Heb. 9:22-26

The man Christ Jesus gave himself a ransom for all to be testified in due time. 1 Tim. 2:5; Heb. 2:9

Shortly after the spiritual phase of the kingdom is fully set up, the heavenly Father, by or through the elect Christ, will terminate the trouble, and then the earthly phase of the kingdom will begin at the time the ancient worthies are resurrected to become princes in all the earth. Zech. 14:3; Matt. 24:22; Heb. 11:35-40; Psa. 25:16

The soul (being) who refuses to accept and obey the better Mediator will be destroyed or devoured (not tormented). Fire is a forceful symbol of destruction – not preservation. Acts 3:23; Ezek. 18:4; Rev. 20:9

So what’s the Difference?

Often we are asked, “How are you different from other Christian groups”? Apart from our distinctive organization (with no clergy or hierarchy), some of our doctrines are quite different from most churches. For example:

The Trinity

We reject the doctrine of a ‘Trinity’. This doctrine developed 300 years after Jesus and His Apostles died as a result of disputes within the orthodox church. The Bible teaches that Jesus was the Son of God, nowhere does it speak of him being ‘God the Son’.

The Soul

We also reject the idea of an “immortal soul” that goes to heaven at death. The Bible teaches that the only hope for eternal life is through a resurrection when Jesus returns.

Baptism

We believe that baptism is an outward manifestation of ones consecration to the Lord, after they have been enlightened by His Holy Spirit. We believe that sprinkling of babies is not baptism.

The Lord’s Return

We believe that the Lord’s promised return is not physical to the eye, but spiritual, an invisible presence.

Our Way of Life

The Bible gives effective direction to our lives. We try to rely fully upon God and develop a faith which is active in prayer and good works. At the same time, however, we recognize that salvation is by grace.

With God’s help, we seek to please and obey him every day, striving to imitate Christ who faithfully obeyed his Father. We therefore endeavor to be enthusiastic in work, loyal in marriage, generous in giving, dedicated in preaching and happy in our God.

A widespread custom amongst Bible Students is to read the Bible every day using a reading plan which enables us to systematically read the Old and the New Testaments once, each year. Of course, many read much more widely than this.

We may also attend one or more evening Bible Study classes each weekday. Each Sunday, we attend two meetings. These meetings vary between ecclesias. There are “Bible Studies”, “Topical Studies”, “Testimony Meetings” and “Discourses.” Attendance at these meetings is the focus of our religious life.

There are also monthly conventions sponsored by various ecclesias and associations and an International Conventions held outside of the United States.

We also have Sunday Schools for young ones of various ages; During the summer, Bible Students sponsor Youth Camps for Bible Study and fellowship.

Some members travel overseas on mission work; others care for the elderly in our retirement centers. There are several monthly magazines to read.

The Bible Students are a close-knit community working in God’s service in whatever ways we can.

How are Bible Students governed? The Bible Students are autonomous. Meaning they are self-governing. The ecclesia [congregation] itself elects it’s own officers [i.e. elders, deacons, etc.] and committees [i.e. witness, comfort, convention] to help the class run as smoothly as possible. There are no paid clergy and no collections are taken during the meetings.

How are the services organized? The congregation itself determines what is to be studied, the elected elders [those spiritually mature-minded] conduct the meetings in an orderly fashion.

How is the work financed? The work is financed by voluntary contributions of its members. Bible Students for over one hundred years have prided themselves on the motto: SEATS FREE – NO COLLECTIONS.

Where do Bible Students meet and have their services? Unlike the more established churches, Bible Students meet in individual homes and rented halls, depending on the size of the congregation. We do not own our own church buildings, as this affords us the opportunity to direct our monetary resources in spreading God’s Word.

Do Bible Students preach/witness? And if so, how? Bible Students, individually and congregationally, have the liberty to witness in whatever fashion is suitable to them. We realise that their are many different avenues to witness, what may suit one class or individual, may not suit another. We leave it to each consecrated member and class to determine what best suits their environment. That said, let it be known that we take advantage of every avenue open to us, this would include going door to door, tracting in the neighborhood, public showings, advertisments in newspaper, magazines and billboards, county fairbooths, etc.

What are public showings? Publics showings are shown in rented halls. They can be in the form of a public discourse on a timely Bible topic, or they can be in the form of a movie or slide presentation.

Do Bible Students publish any literature? Yes. The Association as a whole and as individual congregations have published throughout the years volumeously. The six volumes of Studies in the Scriptures by the late Pastor Charles Taze Russell are still republished today. Along with many other older and current writings, reflecting over 100 years of service.

Are there any Bible Student publishing houses? Yes. There are quite a few throughout the United States and Europe. Some have come and gone in recent years. There are also individual congregations and Bible Students who published independent of each other. These publication however are used and distributed by the association worldwide, regardless of who publishes them.

Are there any Bible Student Journals and Magazine in print? Most congregations publish a monthly newsletter, distributed to those they come in contact with through their independent witness work. However there are several journals and newsletters published for the general public and the association.

How many Bible Students are there? Since Bible Students do not take roll-call, that is a difficult question to answer. Bible Students can be seen in all four corners of the earth, some are isolated, and others have abundant association.

Since the congregations are autonomous, are all Bible Students in agreement, doctrinally? Just how closely are the Bible Students in harmony? Do you still hold to the doctrinal teachings as espoused by Charles Taze Russell? To say that all Bible Students think alike would be to undermine the freedom in Christ we share. Most Bible Students accept the teachings as set forth in Pastor Russell’s Studies in the Scriptures as being doctrinally sound and supported by God’s Word. However since Pastor Russell never claimed infallibility, it is safe to say that some of his thoughts are opened to interpretation. However, these interpretations, do not take away from The Divine Plan of the Ages, as espoused by Pastor Russell.

It is safe to say there are those, individually and as publishing houses who have taken liberty with the Plan of Salvation as espoused by Pastor Russell.